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Showing posts from January, 2016

Of God The Holy Ghost

Heidelberg Catechism (extended) The Catechism Method of Instruction in the Christian Religion As the Same is Taught in the Reformed Churches and Schools (with the Scripture references written out) Note.  This Catechism is fully based on the Scriptures. The references to Scripture are indicated in parentheses with a letter. For example, the letter (a) points to the texts (a) placed after the answer. 20. Lord's Day  Q. 53. What dost thou believe concerning the Holy Ghost?  A. First, that he is true and coeternal God with the Father and the Son; (a) secondly, that he is also given me, (b) to make me by a true faith, partaker of Christ and all his benefits, (c) that he may comfort me (d) and abide with me for ever. (e)  (a) 1 John 5:7 For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. Gen.1:2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved u

“Christ’s death is the Christian’s life” by J.C. Ryle

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Posted at Tolle Lege: “These verses show us the peculiar plan by which the love of God has provided salvation for sinners. That plan is the atoning death of Christ on the cross.  Our Lord says to Nicodemus, ‘As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have eternal life.’  By being ‘lifted up,’ our Lord meant nothing less than His own death upon the cross. That death, He would have us know, was appointed by God to be ‘the life of the world.’ (John 6:51.) It was ordained from all eternity to be the great propitiation and satisfaction for man’s sin.  It was the payment, by an Almighty Substitute and Representative, of man’s enormous debt to God. When Christ died upon the cross, our many sins were laid upon Him. Read more... 

Fundamentalism and the New Conservative Evangelical Identity

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By Rev. Aaron Dunlop - Posted at ThinkGospel.com : In previous articles I have tried to address some of the problems with fundamentalism. I have not been—nor should anyone be—afraid to face these hard issues head-on, to admit the difficulties, and to attempt to correct them. Five of the seven churches in Asia Minor had rebuke-worthy faults mingled with virtues in Revelation 2 and 3. The task that the Lord burdened those churches with is the same task that we are burdened with: to recognize our corporate faults and correct them. Failure to do this only compounds our sin. In analyzing fundamentalism, however, it has not been my intention either to take potshots at or to trash the whole kit-and-caboodle. I am not about to join the band of evangelicals among whom it “has become fashionable … to join in criticism of fundamentalism,” as Iain Murray puts it. Those who do so reveal their own narrow prejudice, identify themselves with other movements with similar faults, and forget that

Strangers And Aliens (14): Recognizing Differences (1 Peter 3:7)

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By Dr. R. Scott Clark - Posted at The Heidelblog : 1Peter 3:7   Likewise, husbands, live with your wives in an understanding way, showing honor to the woman as the weaker vessel, since they are heirs with you of the grace of life, so that your prayers may not be hindered. (ESV). v.7: Christian Husbands and Wives Throughout this epistle question before Peter and before the congregations in (what we know as) Turkey is how they ought to live in light of their redemption, in view of eternity, in a predominantly pagan setting as they worship and serve their redeemer and wait patiently for his return. To this point in chapter 3 Peter has been instructing Christian women how to relate to their husbands, particularly to unbelieving husbands. Verse 7, however, assumes a believing husband and, most likely, a believing wife. In our post-feminist, late-modern context this language might seem somewhat patronizing or even demeaning but Peter was not writing to our context—he was writing to

The Fighting Parson and his Paxtang Boys

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Grave of Rev. John Elder - Image from FindaGrave.com By Rev. David T. Myers - Posted at This Day in Presbyterian History : When calling a Presbyterian pastor, his qualifications are important. Does he preach the Word of God? Check! Does he evangelize the unconverted and make disciples? Check! Does he administer the sacraments? Check! Does he visit the people in their homes, especially the sick? Check! Does he lead military operations against marauding natives? Whoa! Wait a minute. What? That isn’t listed in the Book of Church Order! And yet, that was often the calling of the pastor in frontier churches. In this case, the Rev. John Elder was one of the Fighting Parsons of the Paxtang Boys in Pennsylvania. John Elder was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on January 26, 1706. He attended the University of Edinburgh. In 1735, he traveled to America and into the Presbyterian church. Ordained on November 22, 1738, he was called to the Paxton Presbyterian Church, two miles north of Harrisburg

Old Princeton: The Legacy of Old Princeton Seminary

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By David Calhoun - Posted at A Place for Truth : The Synod of Dort summed up the soteriology of Calvinism in five points. In this article I will sum up the legacy of Old Princeton Seminary in six points. 1. God’s Word is truth. On the last New Year’s day of his life, Charles Hodge was visited by one of the seminary students, who asked for a motto. The old man wrote in a firm hand and with large letters, “Thy word is truth.” Charles Hodge and the other Princeton professors believed that the Bible was the infallible Word of God. They maintained that the Bible itself claimed that it was completely true, that Jesus believed it to be entirely trustworthy, and that the whole Christian church, until recent times, had held it to be absolutely authoritative. 2. All truth is God’s truth. In 1825 Charles Hodge began the Biblical Repertory “to render accessible to American readers some of the fruits of mature learning of English and German scholars.” Soon the journal included original art

The Five Points of Calvinism

Sermon Details: 1. The history - Where the five points came from. 2. The meaning and Biblical basis of each point. 3. Why it matters – the honour of God as almighty and the sole author of salvation in its entirety; sets forth Christ as a complete and effective Saviour: determines the proper limits of the Church's real evangelistic responsibility; prevents encouraging false professions of faith. (70 minutes) Link: http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2503162734

Reprobation: I Could Never Love A God Like That!

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Amazon link Posted at The Reformed Reader : Reprobation is a tough teaching of Scripture. It’s not something to talk about lightly; it is weighty! I appreciate the following words on this: “If the doctrine of reprobation is as difficult as it seems, then why should we speak about it at all? One reason, as we have seen [earlier in the chapter], is that the Bible itself speaks about it [e.g. Prov. 16:4, Jn 12:39-40, 13:18, 17:12, 1 Pet. 2:7-8, Jude 4, etc.]. This is also the primary answer to a person who says, ‘I could never love a God like that.’ Fair enough, we may say; nevertheless that is the God with whom you have to deal. However, this is not a completely satisfying answer, and there are other meaningful things to say about reprobation.” Read more...

Of God the Son (Continued)

Heidelberg Catechism (extended) The Catechism Method of Instruction in the Christian Religion As the Same is Taught in the Reformed Churches and Schools (with the Scripture references written out) Note. This Catechism is fully based on the Scriptures. The references to Scripture are indicated in parentheses with a letter. For example, the letter (a) points to the texts (a) placed after the answer. 19. Lord's Day  Q. 50. Why is it added, "and sitteth at the right hand of God"?  A. Because Christ is ascended into heaven for this end, that he might appear as head of his church, (a) by whom the Father governs all things. (b)  (a) Eph.1:20 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, Eph.1:21 Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: Eph.1:23 Which is his body, the fulness of h

A Completed Sacrifice

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By C.H. Spurgeon - Posted at Daily Checkbook/ Sermon Audio : "And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering: and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him" — Leviticus 1:4 If by that laying on of his hand the bullock became the offerer's sacrifice, how much more shall Jesus become ours by the laying on of the hand of faith? "My faith doth lay her hand On that dear head of Thine, While like a penitent I stand, And there confess my sin." If a bullock could be accepted for him to make atonement for him, how much more shall the LORD Jesus be our full and all-sufficient propitiation? Some quarrel with the great truth of substitution; but as for us, it is our hope, our joy, our boast, our all. Jesus is accepted for us to make atonement for us, and we are "accepted in the Beloved." Let the reader take care at once to lay his hand on the LORD's completed sacrifice, that by accepting it he may obtain the benefit of it. I

Present Day Evangelism

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By A.W. Pink - Posted at Grace Gems : "The glorious gospel of the blessed God, which he entrusted to me." 1 Timothy 1:11 Most of the so-called evangelism of our day is a grief to genuine Christians, for they feel that it lacks any scriptural warrant, that it is dishonoring unto God, and that it is filling the churches with empty professors! They are shocked that so much frothy superficiality , fleshly excitement and worldly allurement should be associated with the holy name of the Lord Jesus Christ. They deplore the cheapening of the Gospel, the beguiling of unwary souls, and the carnalizing and commercializing of what is to them, ineffably sacred. It requires little spiritual discernment to perceive that the evangelistic activities of Christendom during the last century have steadily deteriorated from bad to worse—yet few appear to realize the root from which this evil has sprung. It will now be our endeavor to expose the same. Its aim was wrong, and therefore its

The Atonement: Was the Sin Question Finally Settled at the Cross?

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By A.W. Pink - Posted at Grace Online : It is unspeakably sad that the atoning death of the Lord Jesus Christ-the most wonderful event that has ever happened or will happen-should have been made the occasion of contention and controversy. That it has been so, affords an awful example of human depravity. The more so, that throughout the centuries of this Christian era, some of the hottest theological battles have been waged over the vital truth of the Atonement. Speaking generally, only two views or interpretations of the Cross have received much favor among the professed people of God: the one which affirmed that the Atonement was effected to make certain the salvation of all who believe; the other which supposed that atonement was made in order to make possible the salvation of all men. The former is the strict Calvinist view; the latter, the Arminian. Even here, the difference was not merely one of terms, but of truth over against error. The one is definite and explicit; the other

Christian Homes

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By A.W. Pink (September, 1948) - Posted at Grace Gems : Many of those who look no farther than the temporal happiness of individuals and the welfare of the State are not insensible of the importance and value of domestic relationships , realizing that the family is but the unit of the nation. No matter how excellent the constitution and laws of a country may be, or what its material resources, they are insufficient and ineffectual, unless a sure foundation for social order and public virtue is laid in the healthy regulation and wise discipline of its families. The nation is but the aggregate of individuals comprising it; and unless there are good fathers and mothers, good sons and daughters, brothers and sisters — there will be no good citizens. It is because our home life has so sadly deteriorated, that social decay is now so far advanced, nor can it be arrested until parents once again properly discharge their responsibility. We have no hesitation in saying that the future welf

Strangers And Aliens (13c): Living Among The Pagans (1 Peter 3:1–6)

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By Dr. R. Scott Clark - Posted at The Heidelblog : 1 Peter 3:1–6 1Likewise, wives, be subject to your own husbands, so that even if some do not obey the word, they may be won without a word by the conduct of their wives, 2when they see your respectful and pure conduct. 3Do not let your adorning be external—the braiding of hair and the putting on of gold jewelry, or the clothing you wear— 4but let your adorning be the hidden person of the heart with the imperishable beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which in God’s sight is very precious. 5For this is how the holy women who hoped in God used to adorn themselves, by submitting to their own husbands, 6as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord. And you are her children, if you do good and do not fear anything that is frightening (ESV). vv.5–6: Sarah’s Eschatology As I suggested in the previous post, in our egalitarian, post-feminist culture, the language of verses 5 and 6 is bound to be difficult to accept. My concern is that there

The Narrow Way

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By A.W. Pink - Posted at Grace Gems : "Enter through the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the way that leads to destruction—and many enter through it. But small is the gate and narrow the way that leads to life—and only a few find it." Matthew 7:13-14 The second half of Matthew 7 forms the applicatory part of that most important discourse of our Lord's, known as "the Sermon on the Mount." One leading design of the Sermon was to show the spiritual nature and wide extent of that obedience which characterizes the true subjects of Christ's kingdom, and which obedience is absolutely necessary for the enjoyment of that ultimate state of blessedness which Divine grace has provided for them. As the Prophet of God, Christ made known that the righteousness which obtains in His kingdom greatly exceeds the "righteousness of the scribes and the Pharisees." Now the Jews imagined that all of them were the subjects of the Messiah's kingd

A. W. Pink: The Pioneer of a Modern Reformation (Pt. 2: The Fruit of Faithful Study)

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A.W. Pink (1886-1952) thinkGospel.com By Aaron Dunlop - Posted at thinkGospel.com : By all accounts the life of A. W. Pink is a phenomenon. John MacLeod, in his spiritual history of the Ilse of Lewis (Banner of the West, 2010), where the Pinks spent their last days and where they are both buried, is not at all favorable to Arthur Pink and claims that his reputation has been “puffed” only by Ian Murray’s Banner of Truth biography. He states that many in the Scottish Highlands viewed him as “an English nutter” and that “on Lewis, few remember Pink with affection; he contributed nothing to her worship, or fellowship and he has no part in local Evangelical consciousness.” There is no doubt that these accusations and other claims identifying him as “eccentric,” “a restless, rootless fellow” could have some credibility if we consider the evidence objectively. It does seem strange that he could live in Stornoway in 1949 and ignore the revival that took place at the time (he completely dis

Of God the Son (Continued)

Heidelberg Catechism (extended) The Catechism Method of Instruction in the Christian Religion As the Same is Taught in the Reformed Churches and Schools (with the Scripture references written out) Note. This Catechism is fully based on the Scriptures. The references to Scripture are indicated in parentheses with a letter. For example, the letter (a) points to the texts (a) placed after the answer. 18. Lord's Day  Q. 46. How dost thou understand these words, "he ascended into heaven"?  A. That Christ, in sight of his disciples, was taken up from earth into heaven; (a) and that he continues there for our interest, (b) until he comes again to judge the quick and the dead. (c)  (a) Acts 1:9 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight. Matt.26:64 Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and

Even the Faintest Call

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By C.H. Spurgeon - Posted at Daily Checkbook/Sermon Audio : "And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shalt be delivered" — Joel 2:32 Why do I not call on His name? Why do I run to this neighbor and that when God is so near and will hear my faintest call? Why do I sit down and devise schemes and invent plans! Why not at once roll myself and my burden upon the LORD? Straightforward is the best runner -- why do I not run at once to the living God? In vain shall I look for deliverance anywhere else; but with God I shall find it; for here I have His royal "shall" to make it sure. I need not ask whether I may call on Him or not, for that word whosoever is a very wide and comprehensive one. Whosoever means me, for it means anybody and everybody who calls upon God. I will therefore follow the leading of the text and at once call upon the glorious LORD who has made so large a promise. My case is urgent, and I do not see how I am to

Our Covenant Heritage

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Amazon link From This Day in Presbyterian History : A Review of a Book on the Scottish Covenanters by Rev. David T. Myers You take notice of a book when, on the covers are favorable reviews of the book by James Boice, D. James Kennedy, Morton Smith and J. Ligon Duncan. Even though two of the above Presbyterian ministers are now members of the triumphant church while two are still in the militant church on earth, their joint commendations should prompt each of our readers to buy and read this 432 page book. Written by a PCA ruling elder of Grace Presbyterian Church, Aiken, South Carolina, Edwin Nisbet Moore, it asks the soul searching question, “How much are you prepared to go through for the sake of the truth?” In essence, Edwin Moore traces the religious heritage of his Scottish ancestor, John Nisbet and one John Nevay, who believed and lived in the late seventeenth century during the “Killing times” of the Covenanters in the land of Scotland. Episcopalian or Anglican clergy had repla

A. W. Pink: The Pioneer of a Modern Reformation (Pt. 1: A String of Failures)

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By Aaron Dunlop - Posted at ThinkGospel.com : The past sixty years in the evangelical church has witnessed a deepening interest in reformed literature and a resurgence of reformed theology; it is, in some respects, a modern Reformation. Much of this has been attributed to the ministry of Dr. Martyn Lloyd-Jones (1899–1981) of Westminster Chapel, London. There is no doubt that Dr. Lloyd-Jones was the greatest single influence in this work of God—he was to twentieth-century London, what Spurgeon was in the nineteenth century. His influence, furthermore, has not abated, but has continued to spread around the world since his death in 1981. There is another man, however, of whom less is known and to whom we owe a great debt of gratitude. That man is Arthur Walkington Pink, who is generally referred to simply as A. W. Pink. Very much forsaken in his day, Pink was one of “the written ministry of A. W. Pink is one of the least noticed facts of major significance in the first half of the twe

(1837) Theodore S. Wright, “Prejudice Against the Colored Man”

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Image from This Day in Presbyterian History Posted at BlackPast.org :  Rev. Theodore S. Wright, (1797-1847) was born to free parents in Providence, Rhode Island. By the 1830s Wright was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in New York City and a conductor on the Underground Railroad. Wright, a dedicated abolitionist, attended the New York State Anti-Slavery Society convention held in Utica, on September 20, 1837. However he also recognized the growing racial prejudice directed against free blacks in the North. In the speech below Wright supported a resolution introduced into the convention which said anti-black prejudice was "nefarious and wicked and should be practically reprobated and discountenanced." His speech appears below.  Mr. President, with much feeling do I rise to address the society on this resolution, and I should hardly have been induced to have done it had I not been requested. I confess I am personally interested in this resolution. But were it

Of Knox and of Cameron – True Zeal and Fire For the Lord

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Posted at Mint, Anise and the Cumin : John Knox, one of the greatest Reformers of the Reformed Church. His appearance was like that of a dwarf. He was extremely short. Knox was considered to be of middle height which from what I can gather from that time frame was somewhere between 5’2 or 5’3. His beard was jet black with white hairs intermingled which was 13.5 inches in length. His face was longish; and his nose beyond the average length; his forehead rather narrow; with his brows standing out like a ridge. He also never went without a staff in his hand and when traveling always carried a sword on his back for defense. In his countenance, was grave and severe which befitted such a man of God with a certain graciousness was united with natural dignity and majesty. He had such fire and zeal in his heart for the Yahovah Almighty that he boldly stood up to anyone who dare question the word of God. As John Calvin would say, “A dog barks when his master is attacked. I would be a coward if I

The Colored Presbyterian Church (1822)

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Posted at This Day in Presbyterian History : Resolute in the Face of Obstacle and Opposition. The nation’s first Presbyterian church, organized specifically for African Americans, was located in Philadelphia and it was organized in 1807. But it was on this day, January 13th, in 1822, that what was sometimes labled the First Colored Presbyterian Church of New York City, or officially the New Demeter Street Presbyterian Church, was organized, with an initial congregation of twenty four members. The Rev. Samuel E. Cornish served as the organizing pastor, though despite his earnest efforts, the congregation’s early years were fraught with setbacks. First they lost their building, that had been built at a cost of $14,000, and then they lost their pastor in 1828, due to his declining health. Samuel Eli Cornish [1795-1858], (pictured above), labored as a Presbyterian pastor, was an ardent opponent of slavery, and in 1827 became one of the two editors of Freedom’s Journal, the nation’s

James Caldwell: “The Fighting Chaplain”

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Posted at Leben: "Call this war by whatever name you may, only call it not an American Rebellion: it is nothing more or less than a Scotch-Irish Presbyterian Rebellion.”  “Who’s that riding in on horse-back? Parson Caldwell, boys; Hooray! Red-coats call him “Fighting Chaplain,” How they hate him! Well they may!” The American War for Independence was on the edge of disaster entering 1780. “Not worth a Continental” had entered the lexicon due to the staggering devaluation of the American currency. More than six hundred had deserted Washington’s army in Morristown, New Jersey, helped along by a more severe winter than that suffered at Valley Forge. Pockets of mutiny had sprung up throughout the winter and into the spring. Then, in May, 1780, Charleston, South Carolina, fell to British General Charles Cornwallis. Emboldened by the General’s success, and intelligence that suggested the colonial militia would not turn out, Loyalists urged the British commanders to mount

In Which Women Deacons Were Approved by the Westminster Assembly

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Posted at Virginia is for Huguenots : Let me tell you about the time that the Westminster Assembly passed a proposition authorizing in their Presbyterian church order that women be included in the office of deacon. The story is fascinating, especially of how it ends, and, well, maybe better told by Dr. Wayne Spear in his "Covenanted Uniformity in Religion: The Influence of the Scottish Commissioners on the Ecclesiology of the Westminster Assembly," pp. 119-121. The Assembly still had before it another proposition from the Second Committee, 'That widows, which we read of, I Tim. v. 3, and elsewhere, are included under the name deacons.'[211] This came up for discussion on December 28 and 29, 1643.  The Independents, especially [Sidrach] Simpson and [William] Bridge, argued most strongly in the Assembly for the inclusion of deaconesses in the church. Simpson, for example, drew from 1 Timothy 5 the points that qualifications for the widow are given, some of them

Of God the Son (Continued)

Heidelberg Catechism (extended) The Catechism Method of Instruction in the Christian Religion As the Same is Taught in the Reformed Churches and Schools (with the Scripture references written out) Note. This Catechism is fully based on the Scriptures. The references to Scripture are indicated in parentheses with a letter. For example, the letter (a) points to the texts (a) placed after the answer. 17. Lord's Day  Q. 45. What does the "resurrection" of Christ profit us?  A. First, by his resurrection he has overcome death, that he might make us partakers of that righteousness which he had purchased for us by his death; (a) secondly, we are also by his power raised up to a new life; (b) and lastly, the resurrection of Christ is a sure pledge of our blessed resurrection. (c)  (a) 1 Cor.15:16 For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised: Rom.4:25 Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification. 1 Pet.1:3 Blessed be the God

Women on the Mayflower

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By Maggie MacLean - Posted at History of American Women : "Eighteen married adult women had crossed the stormy Atlantic with their husbands aboard the Mayflower. There were no single women on board. Three women - Susanna White, Mary Allerton and Elizabeth Hopkins - had boarded the Mayflower at least six months pregnant. Susanna gave birth to a son Peregrine; Elizabeth gave birth to a son Oceanus, who later died at the age of two; Mary gave birth to a stillborn son while the ship was anchored at Provincetown Harbor." The passengers on the ship Mayflower were the earliest permanent European settlers in New England. They were referred to as the "First Comers" and they lived in perilous times. With their religion oppressed by the British government and the Church of England, the small party of Separatists who comprised almost half of the passengers on the ship sought a life where they could practice their religion freely. Freedom We Seek On September 6, 1620, the

Elizabeth Montgomery Witherspoon (1721-1789)

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Colonial New England From Wives of the Signers - Posted at Colonial Hall.com : Elizabeth Montgomery Witherspoon (1721-1789) Wife of John Witherspoon Rev. John Witherspoon, D.D., * who became President of Princeton College and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was married to Elizabeth Montgomery in Scotland, shortly after completing his education in Edinburgh University, in 1743. His biographers say of her: "She was a Scotch woman of little education, but whose piety, benevolence, and graciousness made her beloved by all who knew her. Dr. Witherspoon (sometimes spelled Wotherspoon) was the son of a minister descended from John Knox, the great Covenanter, and as a young man, had established a wide reputation for learning and other sterling qualities. He was offered the presidency of Princeton in 1766 but declined became of financial embarrassments and the opposition of his wife who did not wish to leave her family and friends and journey into a strange lan

Strangers And Aliens (13b): Living Among The Pagans (1 Peter 3:1–6)

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By Dr. R. Scott Clark - Posted at The Heidelblog : 1 Peter 3:1–6 1Likewise, wives, be subject to your own husbands, so that even if some do not obey the word, they may be won without a word by the conduct of their wives, 2when they see your respectful and pure conduct. 3Do not let your adorning be external—the braiding of hair and the putting on of gold jewelry, or the clothing you wear— 4but let your adorning be the hidden person of the heart with the imperishable beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which in God’s sight is very precious. 5For this is how the holy women who hoped in God used to adorn themselves, by submitting to their own husbands, 6as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord. And you are her children, if you do good and do not fear anything that is frightening (ESV). vv.3–6: Adornment True And False Just as soon as Peter completes one thought, which is bound to be quite controversial in our late-modern culture of identity politics, he plunges us into another po

Religion and the Founding of the American Republic

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Posted at LOC.gov: Religion played a major role in the American Revolution by offering a moral sanction for opposition to the British--an assurance to the average American that revolution was justified in the sight of God. As a recent scholar has observed, "by turning colonial resistance into a righteous cause, and by crying the message to all ranks in all parts of the colonies, ministers did the work of secular radicalism and did it better." Ministers served the American cause in many capacities during the Revolution: as military chaplains, as penmen for committees of correspondence, and as members of state legislatures, constitutional conventions and the national Congress. Some even took up arms, leading Continental troops in battle. The Revolution split some denominations, notably the Church of England, whose ministers were bound by oath to support the King, and the Quakers, who were traditionally pacifists. Religious practice suffered in certain places because of the a

Biography of John Witherspoon

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John Knox Witherspoon (Wikipedia) Page One - Posted at Colonial Hall.com : John Witherspoon, a man alike distinguished as a minister of the gospel, and a patriot of the revolution, was born in the parish of Yester, a few miles from Edinburgh, on the 5th of February, 1722. He was lineally descended from John Knox, the Scottish reformer, of whom Mary, queen of Scots, said, "she was more afraid of his prayers, than of an army of ten thousand men."  The father of Mr. Witherspoon was the minister of the parish of Yester. He was a man, eminent for his piety and literature, and for a habit of great accuracy in his writings and discourses. The example of the father contributed, in no small degree, to form in his son that love of taste and simplicity, for which he was deservedly distinguished.  He was sent, at an early age, to the public school at Haddington, where be soon acquired a high reputation for the native soundness of his judgment, his close application to stu